heat treatment


In the metallurgical, metal working and mechanical industry, a wide array of heat treatments is made on various metals. In many metal working processes the work pieces are heat treated to relieve stresses. The forgings are heated up to 800 – 900°C in a furnace. To cool the metal, avoiding oxidation, the work piece is quenched in a tank filled with quench oil or water emulsion. Due to environmental control and fire regulations, there is a trend in many countries to use synthetic oils instead of the traditional mineral oils. The characteristic of the quenching fluid and its desired temperature varies according to the material and the type of work pieces that need to be quenched. Usually, baths are kept at a temperature in the range of 40°C – 70°C. In the manufacturing process, batch or continuous, a heat exchanger is needed to control the temperature of the quenching bath. The cooling duty that we may find varies primarily according to the size of the pieces and the pace at which they are quenched in the tank. In this case, many metal parts of small or medium size are continuously introduced in the tank. The parts remain in the tank for some minutes, when their temperature has arrived at the desired level.



Compressed air has found applications throughout virtually all fields of commerce and industry. Compressed air has become one of the most important power media used in industry and provides power for a multitude of manufacturing operations. General uses of compressed air may be on the production line: pneumatic tools have various advantages in industrial production; among others, they have a low ratio of weight to power and they may be used steadily for long periods without overheating and with low maintenance costs.



Hydraulic systems can be found in wide range of applications. They play a key role in presses, stamping machines, building machinery, machine tools and rolling lines, just to name a few. The efficiency of the processes in: plastic manufacturing industry, pulp and paper industry and in mechanical workshops is very much depending on a perfect working hydraulic system. A lot of energy is lost in the form of heat in Hydraulic systems. When compressing the oil the temperature increases. Like any other oil the chemical-physical properties of hydraulic oil varies very much with the temperature.



Surface Treatment-Degreasing :  Degreasing is a pre-treatment operation in a surface treatment line. The objective is to remove grease from objects and to obtain a clean surface. The heat exchanger duty is temperature control by heating.
The objects can be lowered into the tank or sprayed with the degreasing liquid.

surface treatment 2
induction furnace


Induction heating is one of the most common electro heat techniques for industry. The benefits are:
– Easy to control, giving high and consistent
Quality of products..
– Energy consumption is minimized.
– Very suitable for integration with other processes
(Such as quenching) to form automatic Production lines.
The metal to be heated is placed near to a coil carrying an alternating current. The induced currents produce heat within the metal. The metal is heated up for some kind of heat treatment or melted depending on the application. Induction heating may also be applied to metal vessels for heating their contents, and is used for the continuous curing of paint and other coatings on metal surface.



Metal wires are usually made of steel, aluminum or copper. They are found in a great variety of applications. Thus, they are manufactured in different sizes and with different properties: from heavy steel wires for fences, to tiny copper wires with a diameter of just a few microns used in the electronic industry. Metal wires are produced by drawing the wires through smaller and smaller dies in wiredrawing machines. This cold metal forming operation results in a heat excess which must be cooled off. Wiredrawing of steel consists of manufacturing processes which are, in some ways, different from the techniques used to produce copper or aluminum wires; therefore it will be treated separately in this paper. A wide variety of properties and finishes can be obtained, by varying the amount of cold reduction and other wire mill practices, including various heat treatments.

Copper backgrounds
lube oil application


Lubrication oil is one of the most common fluids in all branches of industry. Close to all industrial equipment is consuming lubrication oil. Motors, pumps, compressors, turbines, bearings,
just to name a few. They all require constant lubrication. Some of the main application areas are:
– Large and heavy machinery
– Foundries and rolling mills
– Power stations
– Ship building and mining
– General machinery
– Refineries
– Plastic processing
– Chemical industry
– Paper industry